Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 1 | Diabetes Type 2 | Symptoms | Best Foods in Diabetes
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes Mellitus also known as Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic medical condition it can be last forever and can be controlled. in this disease, if your diabetes blood sugar level and blood glucose level are too high then you can get this disease. You get the glucose from the food that you eat, if your pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin which controls the blood sugar levels then your chances to get the Diabetes Mellitus are high, in other words, absence of insulin causes diabetes.
The patients suffering from diabetes mellitus have insufficient production of insulin which causes hyperglycemia. There are a lot of projections on diabetes globally. According to the surveys and researches in 2019, there were 463 Million adults ages 20 to 79 were having diabetes and the projection tells that this will rise to 700 million in 2045.
According to the International Diabetes Federation top 5 countries with ranking with high diabetes prevalence(% age of population ages between 20 to 79) are:
New Caledonia 21.80
There are 30.3 million people in the US who have diabetes mellitus which is 9.4% of the total population of the US, and 7.3 million people are those who have diabetes and they don’t know about it.
How many Diabetes types are there?
There are two significant diabetes types which are diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2. In diabetes type 1 the pancreas suffers from an autoimmune attack from inside the body and it generates the abnormal antibodies and it prevents enough production of insulin which maintains the diabetes blood sugar level. In diabetes type 1 the patient has to do insulin medication for durability.
Diabetes Type 1
In this type, our body generates the antibodies and inflammatory cells by mistake which leads against the patients and can cause damage to their body and tissues. In people who have diabetes type 1, our immune system attack the pancreas mistakenly which produces insulin.
Exposure to some viral infection and other toxins that are present in our environment can trigger our immune system to produce abnormal antibodies which can damage the pancreas cells which produce insulin to maintaining the blood sugar level. In humans, these antibodies can be recognized in most patients, and from it, it is easy to evaluate which patient is at risk to get diabetes type 1.
This type of diabetes mostly occurs in lean individuals, the people under the age of 30, but in older patients, this diabetes type 1 tends to occur on occasion. Out of total patients of diabetes Mellitus, there are 90% of patients have diabetes type 2 and the other 10% have diabetes type 1.
Diabetes Type 2
In this type, the patient’s body is able to produce insulin but can’t use the way it should, diabetes type 2 also known as insulin resistant. In humans, the pancreas makes a hormone known as insulin, the energy called glucose you get from the food you eat, made through insulin.
Diabetes type 2 recently referred to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM). Diabetes type 2 mostly occurs in the age above 30 and the prevalence increases with age. People with poor eating habits, lack of exercise, and higher body weight.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is common in determined ethnic groups. The estimated prevalence in non-Hispanic Caucasians is 7%, the estimated prevalence in Asian Americans is 8%, 13% in the Hispanic, 12.3% in Black grounds and 20% to 50% in determined American communities. Diabetes mellitus occurs mostly in women during pregnancy which is a prior history of diabetes.
Other types of Diabetes Mellitus
This type of diabetes can occur during the pregnancy and it is temporary, according to reports, this occurs in 2% to 10% of all pregnancies. It can occur due to some noticeable changes in hormones due to pregnancy which can cause blood sugar evaluation and this is called gestational diabetes.
In this your blood sugar evaluation can occur due to some other medical conditions, in which a disease can be the reason of destruction of the pancreatic tissue like chronic pancreatitis( like pancreas inflammation because of excessive alcohol), or it can be trauma or if you had surgery of removal of the pancreas.
Hormonal disturbance can be the cause of the occurrence of diabetes, like if you have excessive growth in hormone production. There are two types of hormonal growth one is acromegaly and the other one is Cushing’s syndrome, in this Cushing syndrome your adrenal glands generate excessive cortisol which causes the blood sugar evaluation, and in acromegaly, a tumor in the brain is the reason to excessive production of growth hormone.
Some kinds of medicines can disturb the diabetes level and it can worsen, it is because of taking medicine which includes steroids.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
Some general diabetes mellitus symptoms are:
Loss in weight
Increase in thirst
Increase in hunger
Tingling in feet
Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1
Unexpected weight loss
Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2
Causes of Diabetes
There are no exact causes of diabetes type 1 because in type the immune system attacks mistakenly for some reason and destroy beta cells which produce insulin in the pancreas, it can be because of some viruses which provoke the immune system to attack or it can be because of genes.
But Diabetes mellitus type 2 can occur because of the fusion of lifestyle and genetics factors. If you are overweighted so there are high chances of getting diabetes mellitus type 2 because the more weight in your belly your cells become more resistant to insulin. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is also a genetic disease so there are chances of getting it from genes like if family members are overweighted they can get diabetes through it.
Risk Factors Diabetes
If you are a teenager/child then you are more likely to get the diabetes mellitus type 1, you can get if your family member is carrying this disease because of genes.
But diabetes mellitus type 2 can increase if you are:
Above the age of 30
Family member with this condition
suffering from high blood pressure
suffering from high cholesterol
There are some complications which are associated with diabetes:
-There are some other complications which are related to gestational diabetes which can harm both mother and baby:
Can get diabetes type 2 in the future
Overweighted at birth
Prevention of Diabetes
Prevention of diabetes mellitus type 1 can’t be avoided because it is directly coming from the problems in the immune system, there are also some causes in diabetes mellitus type 2 which are not preventable like age or genes.
There are many other preventable factors but they need some strategies to improve your diet routine and physical fitness.
If you are in a condition of prediabetes then here are some things you can do to prevent diabetes mellitus type 2:
Do some aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week
Remove saturated fats from your diet
Remove trans fats from your diet
Cut refined carbohydrates from your diet
Eat but don’t fill your stomach at once
If you are overweighted then loose 7% of total body
Foods that are beneficial in Diabetes Mellitus
If you are noticing the symptoms mentioned above then go to your doctor and confirm it if you have or not, after that you are diagnosed with diabetes then you can take precautionary measures after blood sugar test, then you must to follow a complete scheduled routine for staying healthy.